IRRITATIVE URINARY SYMPTOMS
Irritative urinary symptoms include the following:
*Frequency—urinating much more often than normal.
*Nocturia—awakening from sleep to urinate.
*Urgency—the sudden and strong desire to urinate.
*Precipitancy—the need to get to the toilet in a hurry to prevent leakage.
*Urgency Incontinence—the sudden and strong desire to urinate with an inability to get to the toilet in time to prevent an accident.
Underlying causes of irritative voiding symptoms include:
*Irritative focus within the bladder—bladder infection, bladder stone or foreign body, bladder tumor, stone in lower ureter.
*Urinary tract obstruction—prostate enlargement, obstructive cystocele.
*Sensory instability—a small capacity bladder that is excessively sensitive to filling.
*Bladder instability—a bladder that contracts (squeezes) at inappropriate times and without its owner’s permission.
*Bladder hyper-reflexia—a bladder that contracts at inappropriate times as a result of disease of the brain or spinal cord, including trauma, strokes, multiple sclerosis, etc.
*Poor bladder compliance—a bladder with a rigid and poorly elastic wall that cannot stretch appropriately as the bladder fills.
OBSTRUCTIVE URINARY SYMPTOMS
Obstructive urinary symptoms include:
*Hesitancy—a stream that is very slow to start.
*Weak stream—a stream that lacks force or pressure.
*Small caliber stream—a narrow and thinned stream.
*Intermittency—a stream that tends to start and stop.
*Straining—the need to use the abdominal muscles to generate a stream.
*Prolonged emptying time
*Incomplete emptying—the sensation of urine remaining in the bladder after completing urination.
Underlying causes of obstructive voiding symptoms include:
*Benign prostate gland enlargement
*Excess muscle tone within the prostate and bladder neck
*Urethral stricture—a scar within the channel that conducts urine from the bladder.
*Poorly contractile bladder—a weak bladder muscle that cannot generate pressure to satisfactorily empty the bladder.
*Urinary tract infection
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Bergen Urological Associates
255 W. Spring Valley Ave.
Maywood, NJ 07607
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222 Cedar Lane
Teaneck, NJ 07666
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